Beyond the “Banking and Sage on Stage” Metaphors for Teaching and Learning—Better Metaphors and Teachers who Foster Discovery and Transformational Learning

Patricia Benner, R.N., Ph.D., FAAN Copyright August 15, 2019 Metaphors can inspire reflection, exploration, and articulation of approaches to teaching and learning. Paulo Friere (1970; 2000) critiqued the dominant “banking metaphor” for teaching and learning. By banking metaphor, he meant teaching students as if they are passive, empty bank accounts into which the teacher’s goal is to …

Diane Pestolesi coaching volleyball

Diane Pestolesi: Coaching

Diane Pestolesi’s metaphor is coaching. This opens up possibilities for situated teaching and learning in actual clinical practice.  She asks questions, assesses students’ approaches and practical understandings, and offers situated coaching.

Lisa Day bird watching

Lisa Day: Bird Watching

Lisa Day’s metaphor of bird watching challenges her to be attentive, engaged and curious. She is comfortable with long pauses, waiting for students to show up. She learns from them rather than only imposing her ideas and information.

Clarifying and Exemplifying Distinctions between “Knowing That” and “Knowing How and When” with Linda Brown

In all practice disciplines (e.g., nursing, medicine, law, teaching, etc) knowing theory and setting goals for interventions and so on is not enough. It will not ensure that one can actually carry out the plans or use the knowledge of what needs to happen in actual particular cases where patient and illness particularities often call …

Using Real Unfolding Clinical Cases to Trigger Classroom Discussion with Sarah Shannon

Sarah Shannon, who teaches clinical nursing ethics, provides real clinical cases that raise ethical issues and asks students what they would do in the situation.  The case featured here is compelling and involves the ethical demand of disclosing the error of starting resuscitation on a patient who has a DNR order, unbeknownst to the clinical staff in the …

Situated Coaching with Preceptor Alyssa Boldt

This short video illustrates “situated coaching” for a new graduate nurse while providing direct, safe participation to create maximum clinical learning. By situated coaching, we mean teaching and experiential learning in actual clinical situations. The new graduate is coached to understand clinical implications as the situation unfolds. Learning directly from whole clinical situations has high impact on …